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                作者:國際紫外線協會時間:2022-04-14 09:18瀏覽623 次


                國際紫外線協會 (IUVA) 認為,根據當前的xiaodu數據和經驗證據,紫外線xiaodu技術可以在多重屏障方法中發揮作用,以減少導致 COVID-19、SARS CoV-2 的病毒傳播。紫外線是一種已知的空氣、水和表面xiaodu工具,如果正確使用,可以幫助降低因接觸 COVID 19 病毒而感染的風險。

                國際紫外線協會(IUVA)關于短波紫外線燈用于 新冠肺炎病毒(COVID-19 )消殺的情況說明

                UVA Fact Sheet on COVID-19

                國際紫外線協會 (IUVA) 認為,根據當前的xiaodu數據和經驗證據,紫外線xiaodu技術可以在多重屏障方法中發揮作用,以減少導致 COVID-19、SARS CoV-2 的病毒傳播。紫外線是一種已知的空氣、水和表面xiaodu工具,如果正確使用,可以幫助降低因接觸 COVID 19 病毒而感染的風險。 “IUVA 召集了來自世界各地的領先專家,制定有效使用紫外線技術的指南,作為一種xiaodu措施,以幫助減少 COVID-19 病毒的傳播。IUVA 成立于 1999 年,是一家致力于紫外線技術的進步,以幫助解決公共衛生和環境問題,”多倫多大學教授兼 IUVA 主席 Ron Hofmann 博士說。

                The International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) believes that UV disinfection technologies can play a role in a multiple barrier approach to reducing the transmission of the virus causing COVID-19, SARSCoV-2, based on current disinfection data and empirical evidence. UV is a known disinfectant for air, water and surfaces that can help to mitigate the risk of acquiring an infection in contact with the COVID19 virus when applied correctly. "The IUVA has assembled leading experts from around the world to develop guidance on the effective use of UV technology, as a disinfection measure, to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19 virus. Established in 1999, the IUVA is a nonprofit dedicated to the advancement of ultraviolet technologies to help address public health and environmental concerns," says Dr. Ron Hofmann, Professor at the University of Toronto, and President of the IUVA.

                必須注意的是,這里和科學、醫學和技術文獻中使用的“UVC”、“UV xiaodu”和“UV”,具體且重要的是指殺菌范圍內的 UVC 光能(200-280nm 光),即與曬黑床或陽光照射中使用的 UVA 和 UVB 不同。It must be noted that “UVC”, “UV disinfection” and “UV” as used here and in the scientific, medical and technical literature, specifically and importantly refers to UVC light energy (200-280nm light) in the germicidal range which is not the same as the UVA and UVB used in tanning beds or sunlight exposure.

                Facts on UV and COVID-19,關于紫外線和 COVID-19 的事實,

                UVC 能否通過減少污染來幫助預防 COVID-19 傳播?

                Can UVC help prevent COVID-19 transmission by reducing contamination?

                根據現有證據,我們認為是這樣。 原因如下:

                40 多年來,UVC 紫外線燈已廣泛用于對飲用水、廢水、空氣、藥品和表面進行xiaodu以對抗一整套人類病原體(Fluence UV 劑量要求審查 IUVA:https://www.iuvanews.com /stories/pdf/archives/180301_UVSensitivityReview_full.pdf)。 迄今為止測試過的所有細菌和病毒(多年來有數百種,包括其他冠狀病毒)都對紫外線xiaodu有反應。 一些生物體比其他生物體更容易受到 UVC xiaodu的影響,但到目前為止,所有經過測試的生物體都在適當的劑量下做出反應。

                Based on existing evidence, we believe so. Here’s why:

                UVC light has been used extensively for more than 40 years in disinfecting drinking water, waste water, air, pharmaceutical products, and surfaces against a whole suite of human pathogens (Fluence UV Dose Required review IUVA: https://www.iuvanews.com/stories/pdf/archives/180301_UVSensitivityReview_full.pdf). All bacteria and viruses tested to date (many hundreds over the years, including other coronaviruses) respond to UV disinfection. Some organisms are more susceptible to UVC disinfection than others, but all tested so far do respond at the appropriate doses.


                ? UVC xiaodu通常與其他技術一起以多屏障方法使用,以確保任何未被一種方法(例如過濾或清潔)“殺死”的病原體被另一種方法(UVC)滅活。 通過這種方式,現在可以在臨床或其他環境中安裝 UVC,以增強現有流程或支持現有協議,因為大流行導致這些流程因過度需求而耗盡。

                ? UVC disinfection is often used with other technologies in a multibarrier approach to ensure that whatever pathogen is not “killed” by one method (say filtering or cleaning) is inactivated by another (UVC). In this way UVC could be installed now in clinical or other settings to augment existing processes or to shore up existing protocols where these are exhausted by excessive demands due to the pandemic.

                ? 紫外線,特別是在 200-280nm(UVC 或殺菌范圍)之間的紫外線,可滅活(也稱為“殺死”)至少兩種與 COVID-19 病毒近親的冠狀病毒:1) SARS-CoV 1 和 2) MERS-CoV。 一個重要的警告是,這種失活已在實驗室的受控條件下得到證實。 紫外線在實踐中的有效性取決于諸如暴露時間和紫外線到達水中、空氣中以及材料和表面的褶皺和縫隙中的病毒的能力等因素。

                ? UV light, specifically between 200-280nm(UVC or the germicidal range), inactivates (aka, ‘kills’) at least two other coronaviruses that are near-relatives of the COVID-19 virus: 1) SARS-CoV1 and 2) MERS-CoV[iii] [iv] [v]. An important caveat is this inactivation has been demonstrated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The effectiveness of UV light in practice depends on factors such the exposure time and the ability of the UV light to reach the viruses in water, air, and in the folds and crevices of materials and surfaces.

                ? COVID-19 感染可能由接觸受污染的表面然后接觸面部區域引起(不如人與人之間的常見,但仍然是一個問題)。 將這種風險降至zui低是關鍵,因為 COVID-19 病毒可以在塑料和鋼表面上存活長達 3 天。 正常的清潔和xiaodu可能會留下一些殘留污染物,(短波紫外線燈UVC 可以處理這些殘留污染物,這表明使用多種xiaodu劑的方法是謹慎的。 UVC 已被證明可以對 COVID-19 病毒的近親病毒(即 SARS-CoV-1,在懸浮于液體中時用足夠劑量的 254nm UV 進行測試)實現高水平的滅活。 IUVA 認為,在治療 COVID-19 病毒 SARS-CoV-2 時,可以預期類似的結果。 然而,關鍵是以這樣一種方式應用 UVC,它可以有效地接觸那些表面上的任何殘留病毒。

                ? COVID-19 infections can be caused by contact with contaminated surfaces and then touching facial areas (less common than person-to-person, but still an issue)[vi]. Minimizing this risk is key because COVID-19 virus can live on plastic and steel surfaces for up to 3 days[vii]. Normal cleaning and disinfection may leave behind some residual contamination, which UVC can treat suggesting that a multiple disinfectant approach is prudent. UVC has been shown to achieve a high level of inactivation of a near-relative of COVID-19’s virus (i.e., SARS-CoV-1, tested with adequate dose of 254nm UV while suspended in liquid)[viii]. IUVA believes similar results can be expected when treating COVID-19’s virus, SARS-CoV-2. However, the key is applying UVC in such a way that it can effectively reach any remaining viruses on those surfaces.

                ? IUVA 還同意 CDC 對醫院的指導意見,即 UVC 的殺菌效果受懸浮液、微生物所在表面或氣溶膠的 UVC 吸收特性的影響。 根據微生物的類型或作用譜; 以及影響傳遞給微生物的紫外線劑量的各種設計和操作因素(https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/)。

                ? IUVA also concurs with CDC guidance to hospitals that the germicidal effectiveness of UVC is influenced by the UVC absorbing properties of the suspension, the surface or aerosol that the organism is in; by the type or action spectra of the microorganism; and by a variety of design and operating factors that impact the delivered UV dose to the microorganism (https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/ ).

                ? IUVA 認識到,在 (UVC短波紫外線燈紫外線光無法到達特定病原體的情況下,該病原體不會被xiaodu。 然而,總的來說,減少病原體的總數會降低傳播的風險。 通過將紫外線應用于許多容易暴露的表面,作為清潔的第二道屏障,尤其是在匆忙的條件下,可以顯著減少總的病原體負荷。 這將是一個相對直接的問題,即用 UVC 光照亮相關表面,例如房間周圍/內部的空氣和表面以及個人防護設備。

                ? IUVA recognizes that in the cases where the UVC light cannot reach a particular pathogen, that pathogen will not be disinfected. However in general, reducing the total number of pathogens reduces the risk of transmission. The total pathogenic load can be reduced substantially by applying UV to the many surfaces that are readily exposed, as a secondary barrier to cleaning, especially in hurried conditions. This would be a relatively straight-forward matter of illuminating the relevant surfaces with UVC light, for example the air and surfaces around/in rooms and personal protective equipment.

                UVCxiaodu設備安全嗎?Are UVC disinfection devices safe?

                像任何xiaodu系統一樣,UVC 設備(短波紫外線燈必須正確使用才能安全。)它們都會產生不同劑量的 UVC 光,波長為 200nm-280nm。 這種 UVC 光比普通陽光“強”得多,可能會對您的皮膚造成嚴重的類似曬傷的反應,同樣,如果暴露在外,可能會損害您眼睛的視網膜。 一些(短波紫外線燈也會在其循環過程中產生臭氧,其他設備會像弧焊機一樣產生光和熱,其他設備會在其循環過程中移動。 因此,所有xiaodu設備都需要考慮一般的人機安全,這些考慮應在操作手冊、用戶培訓和適當的安全合規性中得到解決。

                Like any disinfection system, UVC devices must be used properly to be safe.) They all produce varying amounts of UVC light in wavelengths of 200nm-280nm. This UVC light is much “stronger” than normal sunlight, and can cause a severe sunburn-like reaction to your skin, and similarly, could damage the retina of your eye, if exposed. Some devices also produce ozone as part of their cycle, others produce light and heat like an arc welder, others move during their cycles. Hence, general machine-human safety needs to be considered with all disinfection devices, and these considerations should be addressed in the operations manual, in the user training, and appropriate safety compliance.

                是否有紫外線xiaodu設備的性能標準和 UVC 驗證協議?Are there performance standards and UVC validation protocols for UV disinfection devices?

                鑒于市場上銷售的用于空氣、水和固體表面xiaodu的 UVC 設備種類繁多,缺乏統一的性能標準,以及在不同設備上進行的研究、開發和驗證測試的程度差異很大,IUVA 敦促消費者謹慎行事在選擇設備時,尋找第三方測試的證據,以及由知名組織(如 NSF、UL、CSA、DVGW-OVGW 或其他適用的國際要求)對設備材料和電氣元件的認證。對于設計用于滅活的 UVC 設備在醫療保健行業的空氣和固體表面,IUVA 的成員正在與照明和醫療保健行業的其他標準組織密切合作,制定xiaodu測試標準[x]。目標是制定指南,幫助世界各地的醫療保健提供者為其機構選擇zui佳技術,以用于對抗多種耐藥生物和其他病原體,如 COVID-19 病毒。

                Given the wide array of UVC devices marketed for disinfection of air, water and solid surfaces, the lack of uniform performance standards and the highly variable degree of research, development and validation testing that is performed on different devices, the IUVA urges consumers to exercise caution when selecting equipment and look for evidence of third party testing as well as certification of device materials and electrical components by well-known organizations such as NSF, UL, CSA, DVGW-OVGW or other international requirements as applicable.For UVC devices designed to inactivate air and solid surfaces in the healthcare industry, members of IUVA are working diligently with other national standards organizations in the lighting and healthcare industry to develop disinfection testing standards[x]. The goal is to develop guidance that will help healthcare providers world-wide choose the best possible technologies for their institutions to use in the fight against multiple drug resistant organisms and other pathogens, like the COVID-19 virus.


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